The Walk of Heroes

A key feature in the Walk of Heroes Veterans War Memorial is the Walk of Heroes itself. This walkway which spans the length of the memorial is crossed by 71 marble bands ranging from 10″ to 20″ wide  engraved with the actions of America’s military during that yearThese will be expanded to accommodated the Global War On Terrorism since 9/11/2001. Each marble band represents a year where American Armed Forces were deployed overseas in armed conflicts and as peacekeepers and is engraved with the year, the country and a brief description of the conflict. Below is a representation of these marble bands. Scroll down the page to read about the history of America’s involvement around the world and be sure to come and visit the memorial where you can walk this history yourself.
 1900 CHINA – BOXER REBELLION: U.S. TROOPS PARTICIPATED IN OPERATIONS TO PROTECT FOREIGN LIVES, PARTICULARLY IN PEKING.  1900
 1901 PANAMA – U.S. TROOPS PROTECTED AMERICAN PROPERTY AND KEPT TRANSIT LINES OPEN DURING REVOLUTIONARY DISTURBANCES.  1901
 1902 COLUMBIA – U.S. TROOPS PROTECTED AMERICAN LIVES AND PROPERTY AT BOCAS DEL TORO DURING A CIVIL WAR.

PANAMA – U.S. TROOPS KEPT THE RAILROAD OPEN AND U.S. SHIPS WERE STATIONED ON BOTH SIDES OF THE ISTHMUS TO PREVENT COLUMBIAN TROOPS FROM LANDING. 1902  1903HONDURAS – U.S. TROOPS PROTECTED THE AMERICAN CONSULATE AND THE WHARF AT PUERTO CORTES DURING REVOLUTIONARY ACTIVITY.

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC – U.S. TROOPS LANDED TO PROTECT AMERICAN INTERESTS IN SANTO DOMINGO DURING REVOLUTIONARY ACTIVITY.

SYRIA – U.S. TROOPS PROTECTED THE AMERICAN CONSULATE IN BEIRUT IN ANTICIPATION OF A MOSLEM UPRISING.

ABYSSINIA – U.S. TROOPS PROTECTED THE AMERICAN CONSUL GENERAL WHILE HE NEGOTIATED A TREATY.

PANAMA – U.S. TROOPS PROTECTED AMERICAN LIVES AND INTERESTS DURING AND AFTER THE REVOLUTION FOR INDEPENDENCE FROM COLUMBIA. 1903  1904DOMINICAN REPUBLIC – U.S. TROOPS ESTABLISHED A NO-FIGHTING AREA AND PROTECTED AMERICAN INTERESTS IN SEVERAL CITIES DURING REVOLUTIONARY FIGHTING.

MOROCCO – U.S. TROOPS LANDED TO PROTECT THE AMERICAN CONSUL GENERAL AND FORCE THE RELEASE OF A CAPTURED CIVILIAN.

PANAMA – U.S. TROOPS PROTECTED AMERICAN LIVES AND INTERESTS AT ANCON DURING A THREATENED INSURRECTION.

KOREA – U.S. TROOPS PROTECTED THE AMERICAN LEGATION IN SEOUL DURING THE RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR. 1904  1906CUBA – U.S. TROOPS PROTECTED INTERESTS AND HELPED RE-ESTABLISH A GOVERNMENT FOLLOWING REVOLUTIONARY ACTIVITY. 1906  1907HONDURAS – U.S. TROOPS PROTECTED AMERICAN INTERESTS IN SEVERAL CITIES DURING A WAR BETWEEN HONDURAS AND NICARAGUA. 1907  1910NICARAGUA – IN REACTION TO THE EXECUTION OF REVOLUTIONARIES, U.S. TROOPS WERE SENT TO PROTECT AMERICAN LIVES AND INTERESTS AT BLUEFIELDS. 1910  1911HONDURAS – U.S. TROOPS PROTECTED AMERICAN LIVES AND INTERESTS DURING A CIVIL WAR.

CHINA – U.S. TROOPS PROTECTED AMERICAN INTERESTS AND THE AMERICAN CONSULATE AT HANKOW DURING REVOLUTIONARY ACTIVITIES. 1911  1912HONDURAS – A SMALL U.S. FORCE LANDED TO PREVENT SEIZURE OF AN AMERICAN OWNED RAILROAD. THE U.S. GOVERNMENT DISAPPROVED OFTHE ACTION, AND THE FORCES WERE WITHDRAWN.

PANAMA – AT THE REQUEST OF BOTH PANAMANIAN POLITICAL PARTIES, U.S. TROOPS SUPERVISED ELECTIONS OUTSIDE THE CANAL ZONE.

CUBA – U.S. TROOPS PROTECTED AMERICAN INTERESTS IN HAVANA AND ON THE PROVINCE OF ORIENTE AS A RESULT OF REVOLUTIONARY ACTIVITY.

CHINA – U.S. FORCES PROTECTED AMERICAN LIVES AND INTERESTS DURING REVOLUTIONARY ACTIVITY.

NICARAGUA – U.S. FORCES PROTECTED AMERICAN INTERESTS DURING AN ATTEMPTED REVOLUTION. A SMALL FORCE, SERVING AS A LEGATION GUARD, REMAINED UNTIL AUGUST 5, 1925 TO PROMOTE PEACE AND STABILITY.

CHINA – FOLLOWING THE KUOMINTANG REBELLION, JAPAN INVADED CHINA. AS A RESULT OF TREATIES WITH CHINA, AND IN PROTECTION OF U.S. INTERESTS, U.S. FORCES MAINTAINED A GUARD AT PEKINK AND ALONG THE ROUTE TOTHE SEA. U.S. FORCES REMAINED OFF AND ON UNTIL 1941.

TURKEY – U.S. TROOPS GUARDED THE AMERICAN LEGATION AT CONSTANTINOPLE DURING THE BALKAN WAR. 1912  1913MEXICO – U.S. TROOPS LANDED AT CIARIS ESTERO TO AID THE EVACUATION OF AMERICAN CITIZENS FROM YAQUI VALLEY DUE TO CIVIL STRIFE. 1913  1914HAITI – U.S. FORCES PROTECTED AMERICAN LIVES AND INTERESTS DURING RIOTING AND REVOLUTIONARY ACTIVITES.

MEXICO – U.S. TROOPS FOUGHT AGAINST THE MILITARY FORCES OF FRANCISCO “PANCHO” VILLA. GENERAL PERSHING LED 10,000 TROOPSTO CAPTURE PANCHO VILLA.

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC – U.S. FORCES STOPPED THE BOMBARDMENT OF PUERTO PLATA DURING REVOLUTIONARY ACTIVITIES, AND MAINTAINED SANTO DOMINGO AS A NEUTRAL ZONE. 1914  1915HAITI – U.S. TROOPS BEGAN 19-YEAR OCCUPATION TO MAINTAIN ORDER DURING CHRONIC POLITICAL INSTABILITY. 1915  1916CHINA – U.S. TROOPS QUELLED A RIOT TAKING PLACE ON AMERICAN PROPERTY IN NANKING.

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC – U.S. NAVAL FORCES MAINTAINED ORDER DURING PERIOD OF CHRONIC THREATENED INSURRECTIONS. 1916  1917CHINA – U.S. TROOPS LANDED AT CHUNKING TO PROTECT AMERICAN LIVES DURING A POLITICAL CRISIS.

WORLD WAR I – AS A RESULT OF GERMANY’S SUBMARINE WARFARE AGAINST CIVILIAN SHIPS, THE U.S. DECLARED WAR AGAINST GERMANY ON APRIL 6, AND AUSTRIA HUNGARY ON DECEMBER 7.

CUBA – U.S. TROOPS PROTECTED AMERICAN INTERESTS DURING AN INSURRECTION. 1917  1918MEXICO – AFTER THE WITHDRAWAL OF THE PERSHING EXPEDITION, U.S. TROOPS BEGAN A TWO-YEAR PERIODIC ENTRANCE INTO MEXICO IN PURSUIT OF BANDITS.

PANAMA – AS A RESULT OF TREATY STIPULATIONS, U.S. TROOPS SERVED POLICE DUTY DURING ELECTION DISTURBANCES AND SUBSEQUENT UNREST.

SOVIET UNION – U.S. TROOPS PROTECTED THE AMERICAN CONSULATE IN VLADIVOSTOK AS A RESULT OF FIGHTING BETWEEN BOLSHEVIK TROOPS AND THE CZECH ARMY DURING THE BOLSHEVIK REVOLUTION. 1918  1919DALMATIA (CROATIA) – AT THE REQUEST OF THE ITALIAN AUTHORITIES, U.S. TROOPS SERVED AS POLICE BETWEEN ITALIANS AND SERBS.

TURKEY – U.S. TROOPS GUARDED THE AMERICAN CONSULATE DURING THE GREEK OCCUPATION OF CONSTANTINOPLE.

HONDURAS – U.S. TROOPS MAINTAINED ORDER IN A NEUTRAL ZONE DURING AN ATTEMPTED REVOLUTION. 1919  1920RUSSIA – U.S. TROOPS PROTECTED AN AMERICAN RADIO STATION AND AMERICAN PROPERTY ON AN ISLAND IN THE BAY OF VLADIVOSTOK.

CHINA – U.S. TROOPS PROTECTED LIVES DURING A DISTURBANCEAT KIUKIANG.

GUATEMALA – U.S. TROOPS PROTECTED THE AMERICAN LEGATION AND AMERICAN INTERESTS DURING FIGHTING BETWEEN UNIONISTS AND THEGOVERNMENT OF GUATEMALA. 1920  1921PANAMA – U.S. FORCES MADE DEMONSTRATIONS ON BOTH SIDES OFTHE ISTHMUS TO PREVENT A WAR BETWEEN PANAMA AND COSTA RICA OVER A BORDER DISPUTE. 1921  1922CHINA – U.S. TROOPS PROTECTED AMERICAN INTERESTS DURING PERIODS OF UNREST.

TURKEY – U.S. TROOPS, BY CONSENT OF GREEK AND TURKISH AUTHORITIES, PROTECTED AMERICAN LIVES AND INTERESTS WHEN TURKISH NATIONALISTS ENTERED SMYRNA. 1922  1924HONDURAS – U.S. TROOPS PROTECTED AMERICAN LIVES AND INTERESTS DURING ELECTION HOSTILITIES.

CHINA – U.S. TROOPS PROTECTED AMERICAN AND FOREIGN LIVES DURING CHINESE FACTIONAL HOSTILITIES IN SHANGHAI. 1924  1925CHINA – FOLLOWING RIOTS IN SHANGHAI, U.S. TROOPS RETURNED TO PROTECT AMERICAN LIVES AND PROPERTY DURING THE INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT.

HONDURAS – U.S. TROOPS PROTECTED FOREIGN LIVES AT LA CEIBA DURING A POLITICAL UPHEAVAL.

PANAMA – FOLLOWING STRIKES AND RENT RIOTS, U.S. TROOPS LANDED TO KEEP ORDER AND TO PROTECT AMERICAN INTERESTS. 1925  1926NICARAGUA – U.S. TROOPS PROTECTED AMERICAN INTERESTS FOLLOWING A COUP D’ETAT. TROOPS CAME AND WENT INTERMITTENTLY UNTIL 1933.

CHINA – U.S. TROOPS PROTECTED AMERICAN AND FOREIGN LIVESIN HANKOW AND KIUKIANG FOLLOWING NATIONALIST ATTACKS. 1926  1927CHINA – AS A RESULT OF FIGHTING IN SHANGHAI, U.S. TROOP PRESENCE INCREASED IN SHANGHAI AND TIENTSIN TO PROTECT AMERICAN AND FOREIGN LIVES. 1927  1932CHINA – U.S. TROOPS PROTECTED AMERICAN INTERESTS DURING THE JAPANESE OCCUPATION OF SHANGHAI. 1932  1933CUBA – U.S. FORCES MADE DEMONSTRATIONS DURING A REVOLUTION AGAINST PRESIDENT GERARDO MACHADO. 1933  1933CHINA – U.S. TROOPS PROTECTED THE AMERICAN CONSULATE AT FOOCHOW WHEN A CHINESE ARMY SET UP A SHORT-LIVED REPUBLIC OF CHINA THERE. 1933  1940NEWFOUNDLAND, BRITISH GUIANA, & THE CARIBBEAN – U.S. TROOPS WERE DEPLOYED TO GUARD BASES OBTAINED IN LEND-LEASE NEGOTIATIONS WITH GREAT BRITAIN. 1940  1941GREENLAND – GREENLAND CAME UNDER THE PROTECTION OF THE U.S.

ICELAND – ICELAND CAME UNDER THE PROTECTION OF THE U.S.

GERMANY – U.S. NAVAL FORCES BEGAN TO PATROL SHIPPING LANESTO EUROPE. BY SEPTEMBER, U.S. WARSHIPS WERE ATTACKING GERMAN SUBMARINES.

NETHERLANDS – U.S. TROOPS OCCUPIED DUTCH GUIANA WHILE BRAZIL, BY AN AGREEMENT WITH THE GOVERNMENT OF THE NETHERLANDS, PROTECTED SURINAM BAUXITE MINES.

WORLD WAR II – THE U.S. DECLARED WAR ON JAPAN AFTER THE SURPRISE BOMBING OF PEARL HARBOR ON DECEMBER 8. ON DECEMBER 11 THE U.S. DECLARED WAR ON GERMANY AND ITALY. 1941  1945GERMANY – U.S. TROOPS OCCUPIED BAVARIA, HESSE, NORTHERN PORTIONS OF PRESENT-DAY BADEN-WÜRTTEMBERG, AND THE PORT CITIES OF BREMEN AND BREMERHAVEN ACCORDING TO THE ALLIED POWER DIVISIONS OF NAZI GERMANY.

AUSTRIA – U.S. TROOPS OCCUPIED ONE-QUARTER OF AUSTRIA, ACCORDING TO THE TERMS OF THE POTSDAM CONFERENCE.

ITALY – U.S. TROOPS OCCUPIED PARTS OF ITALY. JAPAN – U.S. TROOPS OCCUPIED PARTS OF JAPAN.

PHILIPPINES – U.S. TROOPS REOCCUPIED THE PHILIPPINES IN PREPARATION FOR THAT NATION’S INDEPENDENCE.

SOUTH KOREA – U.S. TROOPS OCCUPIED SOUTH KOREA AND DEFEATED A LEFTIST INSURGENCY.

CHINA – U.S. TROOPS WERE GARRISONED TO OVERSEE THE REMOVAL OF SOVIET AND JAPANESE FORCES FOLLOWING WORLD WAR II. 1945  1946ITALY – U.S. TROOPS INCREASED ALONG THE ZONAL OCCUPATION LINE AFTER YUGOSLAV FORCES SHOT DOWN AN UNARMED U.S. ARMY TRANSPORT PLANE. 1946  1948PALESTINE – U.S. TROOPS WERE SENT TO JERUSALEM TO PROTECT THE U.S CONSUL GENERAL.

BERLIN – BERLIN AIRLIFT – IN RESPONSE TO A SOVIET UNION LAND BLOCKADE OF ALL SECTORS OF BERLIN, THE U.S. AND ITS ALLIES AIRLIFTED SUPPLIES TO BERLIN UNTIL THE BLOCKADE WAS LIFTED IN MAY 1949.

CHINA – U.S. TROOPS PROTECTED THE AMERICAN EMBASSY IN NANKING WHEN THE CITY FELL TO COMMUNISTS. AID WAS SENT TO SHANGHAI TO PROTECT EVACUATING AMERICANS. 1948  1950KOREAN CONFLICT – IN RESPONSE TO NORTH KOREA’S INVASION OF SOUTH KOREA, U.S. TROOPS INTERVENED WITH PERMISSION OF THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL.

FORMOSA (TAIWAN) – AT THE START OF THE KOREAN CONFLICT, PRESIDENT TRUMAN SENT THE U.S. SEVENTH FLEET TO PREVENT COMMUNIST CHINESE ATTACKS AGAINST FORMOSA. 1950  1954CHINA – U.S. FORCES EVACUATED AMERICAN CIVILIANS AND MILITARY PERSONNEL FROM THE TACHEN ISLANDS. 1954  1955VIETNAM – THE FIRST U.S. MILITARY ADVISORS ARRIVE IN VIETNAM ON FEBRUARY 12. 1955  1956EGYPT – U.S. TROOPS EVACUATED AMERICAN AND FOREIGN CIVILIANS FROM ALEXANDRIA DURING THE SUEZ CRISIS. 1956  1958LEBANON – U.S. TROOPS ARRIVED ON THE INVITATION OF LEBANESE PRESIDENT CAMILLE CHAMOUN TO PROTECT AGAINST A THREATENED INSURRECTION. 1958  1959THE CARIBBEAN – U.S. TROOPS PROTECTED AMERICAN LIVES FOLLOWING THE CUBAN REVOLUTION. 1959  1961CUBA – THE BAY OF PIGS INVASION – U.S.-TRAINED CUBAN EXILES INVADED SOUTH-WEST CUBA WITH THE INTENTION OF OVERTHROWING FIDEL CASTRO. THE CUBAN MILITARY DEFEATED THE INVASION FORCE IN DAYS. 1961  1962THAILAND – U.S. TROOPS LANDED TO OFFER PROTECTION AND SUPPORT DURING THE THREAT OF OUTSIDE COMMUNIST PRESSURE.

CUBA – CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS – PRESIDENT KENNEDY QUARANTINED A SHIPMENT OF OFFENSIVE MISSILES TO CUBA FROM THE SOVIET UNION. HE ALSO THREATENED THE U.S.S.R. WITH NUCLEAR RETALIATION IF ANY MISSILES LAUNCHED FROM CUBA.

LAOS – U.S. TROOPS OFFERED A SUPPORT ROLE TO ANTI-COMMUNIST FORCES IN LAOS. 1962  1964CONGO – THE U.S. SENT TRANSPORT PLANES FOR AIRLIFT SUPPORT FOR CONGOLESE TROOPS DURING A REBELLION AND TO TRANSPORT BELGIAN PARATROOPERS TO RESCUE FOREIGN NATIONALS.

VIETNAM WAR – AS A DIRECT RESULT OF THE TONKIN GULF RESOLUTION, U.S.DEPLOYMENTS ESCALATED IN SOUTHEAST ASIA. PRESIDENT JOHNSON WAS GIVEN WAR POWERS WITHOUT HAVING TO FORMERLY DECLARE WAR. 1964  1965DOMINICAN REPUBLIC – U.S. TROOPS INTERVENED DURING A DOMINICAN REVOLT AS FEARS GREW THAT REVOLUTIONARY FORCES WERE BECOMING INCREASINGLY COMMUNIST. 1965  1967CONGO – U.S. TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT AND CREWS WERE PROVIDED TO THE CONGO CENTRAL GOVERNMENT FOR LOGISTICAL SUPPORT DURING A REVOLT. 1967  1968LAOS & CAMBODIA – THE U.S. STARTED A SECRET BOMBING CAMPAIGN AGAINST TARGETS ALONG THE HO CHI MINH TRAIL. 1968  1970CAMBODIA – U.S. TROOPS WERE SENT IN TO CLEAN OUT COMMUNIST SANCTUARIES FROM WHICH THE NORTH VIETNAMESE ATTACKED U.S. AND SOUTH VIETNAMESE TROOPS. 1970  1973ISRAEL – OPERATION NICKEL GRASS – THE U.S. DELIVERED WEAPONS AND SUPPLIES TO ISRAEL DURING THE YOM KIPPUR WAR. 1973  1974CYPRUS – U.S. FORCES EVACUATED AMERICAN CIVILIANS DURING HOSTILITIES BETWEEN TURKISH AND GREEK FORCES. 1974  1975VIETNAM – U.S. TROOPS AND NAVAL FORCES BEGAN EVACUATION OF AMERICAN NATIONALS AND REFUGEES OF THE VIETNAM WAR.

CAMBODIA – U.S. TROOPS BEGAN EVACUATION OF AMERICAN NATIONALS FROM CAMBODIA. TROOPS WERE ALSO ORDERED TO RETAKE A CAMBODIAN MERCHANT VESSEL THAT WAS SEIZED IN INTERNATIONAL WATERS. 1975  1976LEBANON – U.S. TROOPS EVACUATED AMERICAN AND EUROPEAN NATIONALS FROM LEBANON DURING FIGHTING BETWEEN LEBANESE FACTIONS.

KOREA – U.S. TROOP PRESENCE WAS INCREASED AFTER TWO AMERICAN SOLDIERS WERE KILLED BY NORTH KOREAN SOLDIERS IN THE DEMILITARIZED ZONE. 1976  1978ZAIRE – U.S. TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT PROVIDED LOGISTICAL SUPPORT TO BELGIUM AND FRENCH RESCUE OPERATIONS. 1978  1980IRAN – OPERATION EAGLE CLAW – PRESIDENT CARTER USED U.S. MILITARY TRANSPORT PLANES AND HELICOPTERS TO UNSUCCESSFULLY RESCUE AMERICAN HOSTAGES AT THE AMERICAN EMBASSY IN TEHRAN. 1980  1981EL SALVADOR – FOLLOWING A GUERILLA OFFENSIVE AGAINST THE EL SALVADOR GOVERNMENT, U.S. MILITARY ADVISORS WENT TO EL SALVADOR TO ASSIST IN TRAINING EL SALVADOR FORCES.

LIBYA – U.S. PLANES SHOT DOWN TWO LIBYAN JETS OVER THE GULF OF SIDRA AFTER ONE OF THE LIBYAN JETS FIRED A HEAT-SEEKING MISSILE. LIBYA CLAIMED THE WATERS WERE TERRITORIAL WHILE THE U.S. CONSIDERED THEM INTERNATIONAL WATERS. 1981  1982SINAI – U.S. TROOPS AND EQUIPMENT PARTICIPATED IN THE MULTINATIONAL FORCE AND OBSERVERS IN THE SINAI.

LEBANON – U.S. TROOPS SERVED IN THE MULTINATIONAL FORCE TO ASSIST IN THE WITHDRAWAL OF MEMBERS OF THE PALESTINE LIBERATION FORCE FROM BEIRUT.

LEBANON – U.S. TROOPS SERVED IN A TEMPORARY MULTINATIONAL FORCE TO RESTORE THE LEBANESE GOVERNMENT TO SOVEREIGNTY. 1982   1983EGYPT – FOLLOWING THE BOMBING OF A CITY IN THE SUDAN BY A LIBYAN PLANE, PRESIDENT REAGAN DISPATCHED AN AWACS SURVEILLANCE PLANE TO EGYPT.

HONDURAS – U.S. TROOPS AND HELICOPTERS FERRIED HONDURAN TROOPS TO THE NICARAGUAN BORDER TO REPEL NICARAGUAN TROOPS.

CHAD – U.S. TROOPS AND AIRCRAFT PROVIDED LOGISTICAL SUPPORT TO ASSIST CHAD AGAINST LIBYAN AND REBEL FORCES.

BEIRUT – SUICIDE BOMBERS DROVE A TRUCK FULL OF EXPLOSIVES INTO A U.S. MARINE BARRACKS. THE BLAST, EQUIVALENT TO 12,000 POUNDS OF TNT, LED TO THE PLACEMENT OF PROTECTIVE BOLLARDS AROUND CRITICAL GOVERNMENT BUILDINGS IN THE U.S.

GRENADA – OPERATION URGENT FURY – FOLLOWING A COUP D’ETAT, GRENADA ALIGNS ITSELF WITH CUBA AND THE SOVIET UNION. U.S.TROOPS INVADE AS A RESULT, AND THE PRIME MINISTER IS ULTIMATELY DEPOSED AND EXECUTED. 1983  1984PERSIAN GULF – SAUDI ARABIAN FIGHTER PLANES, AIDED BY INTELLIGENCE FROM U.S. AWACS SURVEILLANCE, SHOT DOWN TWO IRANIAN FIGHTER PLANES OVER A PROTECTED SHIPPING ZONE. 1984  1985ITALY – U.S. NAVAL PILOTS INTERCEPTED AN EGYPTIAN AIRLINER AND FORCED IT TO LAND IN SICILY. THE AIRLINER CARRIED THE HIJACKERS OF AN ITALIAN CRUISE SHIP WHO KILLED AN AMERICAN DURING THE HIJACKING. 1985  1986LIBYA – LIBYAN PATROL BOATS IN THE GULF OF SIDRA LAUNCHEDMISSILES ON U.S. NAVAL FORCES. THE U.S. RESPONDED WITH MISSILE-FIRE.

LIBYA – OPERATION EL DORADO CANYON – THE U.S. LAUNCHED BOMBING STRIKES AGAINST MILITARY INSTALLATIONS IN TRIPOLI DUE TO SUSPICION OF MUAMMAR ALGADDAFI’S RESPONSIBILITY FOR A BOMBING IN GERMANY.

BOLIVIA – U.S. TROOPS AND AIRCRAFT ASSISTED BOLIVIA IN ANTI-DRUG OPERATIONS. 1986  1987PERSIAN GULF – OPERATION EARNEST WILL – U.S. NAVAL FORCES PROTECTED KUWAITI OIL TANKERS FROM IRAQI AND IRANIAN ATTACKS DURING THE TANKER WAR PHASE OF THE IRAN-IRAQ WAR. IT WAS THE LARGEST NAVAL CONVOYOPERATION SINCE WWII.

PERSIAN GULF – OPERATION PRIME CHANCE – U.S. SOCOM OPERATION INTENDED TO PROTECT U.S.-FLAGGED OIL TANKERS FROM IRANIAN ATTACK. IT TOOK PLACE AT ROUGHLY THE SAME TIME AS OPERATION EARNEST WILL. 1987  1988PANAMA – TO INCREASE PRESSURE ON PANAMANIAN HEAD OF STATE MANUEL NORIEGA TO RESIGN, THE U.S. INCREASED ITS TROOP PRESENCE IN PANAMA BY 1000 TROOPS.

HONDURAS – OPERATION GOLDEN PHEASANT – FOLLOWING THREATENING ACTIONS BY THE (THEN SOCIALIST) NICARAGUANS, U.S. TROOPS WERE DEPLOYED TO HONDURAS. THE NICARAGUAN SANDINISTAS QUICKLY RETREATED.

PERSIAN GULF – OPERATION PRAYING MANTIS – U.S. NAVAL FORCES RETALIATED AGAINST IRANIAN MINING OF THE PERSIAN GULF, AND SUBSEQUENT DAMAGE TO A U.S WARSHIP.

STRAIT OF HORMUZ – ON EMERGENCY DEPLOYMENT TO THE STRAIT OF HORMUZ, USS VINCENNES TRADED GUNFIRE WITH IRANIAN GUNBOATS.AFTERWARDS, IRAN AIR FLIGHT 655, A CIVILIAN AIRLINER EN ROUTE TO DUBAI, FLEW OVER THE STRAIT. MISTAKING THE FLIGHT FOR IRANIAN MILITARY FIGHTER, USS VINCENNES FIRED ON IR655, DESTROYING IT. 1988  1989LIBYA – TWO U.S. F-14S SHOT DOWN TWO LIBYAN JET FIGHTERS OVER THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA 70 MILES NORTH OF LIBYA. THE U.S. PILOTS STATED THE LIBYAN PILOTS DEMONSTRATED HOSTILE INTENTIONS.

PANAMA – FOLLOWING MANUEL NORIEGA’S DISREGARD OF THE PANAMANIAN ELECTION RESULTS, PRESIDENT BUSH INCREASED U.S. TROOP PRESENCE IN THE AREA BY 1900 TROOPS.

SOUTH AMERICA – THE WAR ON DRUGS – PRESIDENT BUSH COMMITS MILITARY AND LAW ENFORCEMENT ASSISTANCE TO THE ANDEAN NATIONS IN ORDER TO COMBAT ILLICIT DRUGS.

PHILIPPINES – U.S. FIGHTER PLANES ASSISTED TO REPEL A COUP ATTEMPT. U.S. TROOPS WERE ALSO SENT TO PROTECT THE U.S. EMBASSY IN MANILA.

PANAMA – OPERATION JUST CAUSE – THE U.S. INVADES PANAMA TO SAFEGUARD THE CANAL, AMERICAN LIVES, PROPERTY, AND INTERESTS. MANUEL NORIEGA IS CAPTURED AND TAKEN TO THE U.S. WITHIN TWO MONTHS, ALL INVASION FORCES WITHDREW. 1989  1990LIBERIA – U.S. TROOPS PROVIDED ADDITIONAL SECURITY TO THE EMBASSY IN MONROVIA WHILE HELICOPTER TEAMS EVACUATED AMERICAN CIVILIANS.

SAUDI ARABIA – U.S. TROOPS ARRIVED TO DEFEND SAUDI ARABIA AFTER THE IRAQI INVASION OF KUWAIT. THE TROOP BUILD-UP CONTINUED TO ALLOW AN ADEQUATE MILITARY OFFENSIVE OPTION. 1990  1991PERSIAN GULF WAR – U.S. ATTACKED IRAQI FORCES AND MILITARY TARGETS IN IRAQ AND KUWAIT, IN CONJUNCTION WITH A COALITION OF ALLIES AND UN SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTIONS. COMBAT OPERATIONS ENDED FORTY-THREE DAYS LATER.

IRAQ – PRESIDENT BUSH STAGED A LIMITED INTRODUCTION OF U.S. TROOPS INTO NORTHERN IRAQ FOR EMERGENCY RELIEF PURPOSES.

ZAIRE – FOLLOWING LOOTING AND RIOTING IN KINSHASA, U.S. TRANSPORT PLANES CARRIED BELGIAN TROOPS TO KINSHASA AND FRENCH TROOPS TO THE CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC. THE TRANSPORTS THEN EVACUATED AMERICAN CIVILIANS.

IRAQ – OPERATION PROVIDE COMFORT – ALLIED TROOPS STATIONED IN TURKEY DELIVERED HUMANITARIAN RELIEF AND MILITARY PROTECTION TO KURDS FLEEING THEIR HOMES IN NORTHERN IRAQ. 1991  1992SIERRA LEONE – U.S. TROOPS EVACUATED AMERICANS FROM THE AREA AFTER LOCAL MILITARY LEADERS OVERTHREW THE SIERRA LEONE GOVERNMENT.

BOSNIA – OPERATION PROVIDE PROMISE – U.S. ASSISTED IN THE AIRLIFT DELIVERY OF FOOD, MEDICINE, AND SUPPLIES TO SARAJEVO.

KUWAIT – FOLLOWING IRAQI REFUSAL TO RECOGNIZE THE NEW BORDER DRAWN UP BY THE U.N. OR COOPERATE WITH U.N. INSPECTION TEAMS, U.S. TROOPS BEGAN A SERIES OF MILITARY EXERCISES IN KUWAIT.

IRAQ – THE U.S. AND U.K. DECLARE AND ENFORCE “NO FLY ZONES” OVER THE MAJORITY OF IRAQI AIRSPACE. THIS IS TO PREVENT IRAQI AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE OR BOMBINGS.

SOMALIA – OPERATION RESTORE HOPE – IN THE THEATER OF THE SOMALI CIVIL WAR, U.S. TROOPS CREATED A SECURE ENVIRONMENT FOR U.N. RESOLUTION 794 TO DISTRIBUTE HUMANITARIAN AID. 1992  1993MACEDONIA – U.S. TROOPS WERE DEPLOYED TO THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA TO ASSIST THE U.N. PROTECTION FORCE AND HELP MAINTAIN STABILITY IN THE AREA.

SOMALIA – BLACK HAWK DOWN – U.S. FORCES WERE INVOLVED IN AN 18-HOUR BATTLE FOLLOWING TWO U.S. BLACK HAWK HELICOPTERS BEING SHOT DOWN.

HAITI – OPERATION UPHOLD DEMOCRACY – FOLLOWING A MILITARY COUP, U.S. TROOPS BEGAN A BUILD-UP IN PUERTO RICO AND FLORIDA. RET. GEN. COLIN POWELL SUCCESSFULLY SERVED AS A DIPLOMAT TO DEFUSE THE SITUATION. 1993  1994MACEDONIA – 200 U.S. TROOPS REINFORCED THE ALREADY PRESENT CONTINGENT IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA. 1994  1995BOSNIA – OPERATION DELIBERATE FORCE – FOLLOWING THE SECOND MARKALE MASSACRE OF CIVILIANS, NATO CONDUCTED BOMBING CAMPAIGNS TO CRIPPLE THE BOSNIAN SERB ARMY. 1995  1996LIBERIA – DUE TO A RISING THREAT TO AMERICAN LIVES, U.S. TROOPS EVACUATED AMERICAN AND FOREIGN CIVILIANS WHO HAD TAKEN REFUGEIN THE AMERICAN EMBASSY COMPOUND.

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC – U.S. TROOPS EVACUATED AMERICAN CIVILIANS AND U.S. GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES, WHILE PROVIDING INCREASED SECURITY TO THE AMERICAN EMBASSY IN BANGUI. 1996  1997ALBANIA – U.S. TROOPS EVACUATED AMERICAN CIVILIANS AND U.S. GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES FROM TIRANIA.

CONGO AND GABON – U.S. TROOPS ARRIVED TO ENHANCE SECURITY AND PREPARE FOR ANY NECESSARY EVACUATION OPERATIONS.

SIERRA LEONE – U.S. TROOPS EVACUATED AMERICAN CIVILIANS AND U.S. GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES FROM FREETOWN.

CAMBODIA – DURING DOMESTIC CONFLICT IN CAMBODIA, U.S. TROOPS WERE DEPLOYED TO UTAPAO AIR BASE IN THAILAND TO PREPARE FOR POSSIBLE EVACUATION OPERATIONS. 1997  1998IRAQ – OPERATION DESERT FOX – U.S. AND U.K. BOMBING STRIKES WERE CONDUCTED OVER FOUR DAYS AS A RESULT OF FAILURE TO COMPLY WITH U.N. SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTIONS.

GUINEA-BISSAU – FOLLOWING A MUTINY THAT THREATENED AN AMERICAN EMBASSY, U.S. TROOPS WERE DEPLOYED TO DAKAR TO PREPARE FOR EVACUATION OPERATIONS.

KENYA & TANZANIA – U.S. TROOPS WERE DEPLOYED TO COORDINATE THE MEDICAL AND DISASTER ASSISTANCE RELATED TO THE BOMBINGS OF AMERICAN EMBASSIES IN THE TWO COUNTRIES.

AFGHANISTAN & SUDAN – OPERATION INFINITE REACH – U.S. NAVAL FORCES LAUNCHED CRUISE MISSILE STRIKES AGAINST TWO SUSPECTED TERRORIST TRAINING CAMPS IN AFGHANISTAN AND A SUSPECTED CHEMICAL FACTORY IN SUDAN.

LIBERIA – U.S. TROOPS SUPPLEMENTED THE SECURITY FORCE FOR THE AMERICAN EMBASSY IN MONROVIA IN ORDER TO PREPARE FOR POTENTIAL EVACUATION. 1998  1999EAST TIMOR – U.S. TROOPS SUPPLEMENTED THE INTERNATIONAL SECURITY FORCE TO HELP RESTORE PEACE IN EAST TIMOR AGAINST INDONESIAN MILITIA DURING EAST TIMOR’S BID FOR INDEPENDENCE.

SERBIA – OPERATION ALLIED FORCE – U.S. TROOPS AND FIGHTER PLANES CONTRIBUTED TO THE NATO STRIKES AND BOMBING MISSIONS AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA DURING THE KOSOVO WAR. 1999